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Schweizer Hochseeschifffahrt (ID: 40065)
t viel ndern, ausser im G stebuch. Der Grund liegt darin, dass ich w hrend dieser Zeit an Bord der " THEO " von ABC Maritime AG sein darf. Ich hoffe, von dieser Reise einige gute Fotos mit nach hause bringen zu k nnen. e-Mails an das Team werden von Markus und Daniel selbstverst ndlich weiterhin beantwortet. 06.02.2003 Aus der Gr nderzeit von MSC haben wir die " ILSE " und die " RAFAELA " hochgeladen 01.02.2003 Von Nick Tolerton haben wir aus New Zealand die ersten Fotos der " CELERINA " unter Schweizer Flagge erhalten. Nick legte der Sendung noch Fotos folgender Schiffe bei: " APPENZELL " , " TURICUM " , " UNTERWALDEN " und " LAUSANNE " 28.01.2003 Update von " SUNADELE " und " HENRI G " 21.01.2003 Von der ABC Maritime AG haben wir die "DORA" hochgeladen. Bei einigen weiteren Schiffen sind neue Fotos dazu gekommen. 21.01.2003 Auf der Seite "Seemansclub" zeichnet der Redaktor Willy Rechsteiner den Werdegang der Clubzeitschrift "Flaschenpost" auf. Dabei sind auch noch zwei Schmunzelgeschichten. 14.01.2003 Neues von der ABC-Maritime AG: Heute am 14 Januar 2003 wurde in Singapur die "Pelican Pursuer" bernommen. Das Schiff, ein sogenanntes " Fast Supply Intervention Vessel ", wird in Zukunft den Namen "KLARA" tragen. Auf der Probefahrt wurde eine Geschwindigkeit von 31.5 Knoten errechnet. Die "KLARA" bleibt noch fuer 2 Wochen in Singapur im Dock. Danach wird sie die Reise in ihr zuk nftiges Arbeitsgebiet Westafrika antreten. 10.01.2003 In der Ostsee bildet sich Eis. Hier diverse Links zum deutschen "Bundesamt f r Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie": - Extreme Eislage im n rdlichen Ostseeraum hat auch die Schifffahrt fest im Griff - Eisberichte und Eiskarten 09.01.2003 Von der Atlanship haben wir die "ORANGE WAVE" hochgeladen. 08.01.2003 Heute, 1145 Uhr, wurde in Ulsan/Korea durch die Reederei Suisse-Atlantique das neue Container-Schiff " LAUSANNE " bernommen. Es handelt sich um das Schwester-Schiff der " NORASIA ENGIADINA " . Das Schiff ist im Schweizer Schiffsregister unter der Nummer 166 eingtragen 03.01.2003 Wie Urs Vogelbacher im SVS-Journal (Schweizerische Vereinigung f r Schifffahrt und Hafenwirtschaft) berichtet, fahren neuerding wieder zwei Seeschiffe mit je 5'500 Tonnen DWT unter der Flagge des Binnenlandes Ungarn. Diese Schiffe sind rund einen Monat alt. Somit hat Ungarn mit diesen beiden Schiffen die modernste Flotte der Welt. 02.01.2003 Im Magazin "FACTS 01/2003" erschien am 31.12.02, unter dem Titel "Sch umende Giganten", ein Artikel von Rainer Klose ber die Riesenwellen, genannt "Killer-Wellen". Darin wird auch erkl rt, wie diese Wellen entstehen k nnen. 02.01.2003 Kaum zu glauben : Tanker " VICKY " f hrt auf das Wrack der gesunkenen "TRICOLOR" . Zwei Wochen nach dem Untergang der "TRICOLOR" , die nach einer Kollision mit der "KARIBA" im Aermelkanal gesunken ist, f hrt erneut ein Schiff auf das Wrack auf. Es handelt sich um den t rkischen Tanker " VICKY ", der mit 70'000 Tonnen Kerosin beladen sein soll. Aus dem Schiff trete entgegen ersten Bef rchtungen kein hochexplosives Kerosin aus. Dies h tten erste Untersuchungen ergeben. Der Tanker liege vor Anker und soll jetzt bei Tageslicht inspiziert werden, wie eine fl mische Radiostation berichtete. Man erinnert sich : Schon vor 14 Tagen lief der deutsche Frachter "NICOLA" auf das Wrack der "TRICOLOR" auf. Die " VICKY " ist die ehemalige "BEAR G" welche damals von Acomarit gemanagt wurde. Aeltere Meldungen sind in unserem Archiv abgelegt. Abk rzungen / Abr viations: Abk rzungen / Abr viations: BRZ Bruttoraumzahl jauge brute, GT Gesamtgr sse dimensions hors tout Internationale Vermessungsgr sse gem ss TONNAGE CONVENTION 1969 (in Kraft seit 1982), rechnerische Gr sse, keine konkrete Dimension Unit de r f rence internationale selon TONNAGE CONVENTION 1969 (en vigueur depuis 1982), unit arithm tique, pas une dimension concr te NRZ Nettoraumzahl jauge nette, NT Nutzgr sse capacit d'utilisation dwt deadweight ton Tragf higkeit; Gewicht der Ladung in t, welche ein Schiff mitf hren darf, bei Sommer-Freibord. (engl. t = 10 16 kg, metrische t = 1000 kg) tpl tonne de port en lourd poids de cargaison en t qu'un navire est autoris transporter, selon marques de franc-bord d' t (tonne angl. = 1016 kg, tonne m trique = 1000 kg) Schweizerische Handelsflotte nach Schiffstyp /marine marchende suisse selon type de navire: 12 Bulk carriers . (Massengutfrachter / vraquiers) 664'843 dwt 78.42 % 7 Multi Purposes / Combi Freighters (Mehrzweckfrachter / multi-r les) 51'111 dwt 6.03 % 3 Asphalt / Chemical Tankers (Tankschiffe / navires citernes) 13'530 dwt 1.6 % 3 Container (Containerschiffe / porte-conteneur) 118'276 dwt 13.95 % 25 Schiffe / navires 847'760 dwt 100 % Welthandelsflotte / marine marchande mondiale au01.01.2002: (Schiffe mit mehr als 300 BRZ / navires avec plus de 300 GT) Ca. 40'000 Schiffe mit / navires avec ca. / approx. 816Mio. dwt/tpl. Anteil Schweiz / portion suisse: ca./approx. 0.1% Herausgegeben von / publi par: Schweizerisches Seeschifffahrtsamt Office suisse de la navigation maritime Swiss Maritime Navigation Office Nauenstrasse 49 4002 Basel Tel. 061 / 270 91 20 Telefax 061 / 270 91 29 Telex 965514 ssa e-mail DV-SSA@eda.admin.ch F r Betriebs- und Mannschaftsfragen wende man sich an dieReedereien / S'adresser aux armateurs pour des questions d'exploitation et d' quipage Register Schweizer Seeschifffahrtsregister F r Fotos: Den unterstrichenen Schiffsname anklicken. Suchfunktion: Ctrl + F Reg Nr.- Reg.- Datum Schiffsname Eigner Bau jahr Call- sign BRT NRT DWT Datum der Streichung 1 24.04.1941 Calanda Schweizerische Reederei AG, Basel 1913 HBDA 4206 2572 7400 12.11.1946 2 24.04.1941 Maloja Schweizerische Reederei AG, Basel 1906 HBDI 1781 1028 2650 19.04.1944 3 06.05.1941 St. Gotthard KTA Bem; Nautilus AG, Glarus 1911 HBDO 5461 3467 8339 29.07.1954 4 29.05.1941 Generoso Maritime Suisse AG, Basel 1896 HBDU 1437 834 2150 29.03.1946 5 1.0.07.1941 St-Cergue Suisse-Atlantique S.A., Lausanne 1937 HBDH 4260 2618 7600 17.03.1952 6 17.07.1941 Chasseral KTA Bem ; Nautilus AG, Glarus 1897 HBDF 3128 1874 4064 08.10.1951 7 12.12.1941 S ntis KTA Bem; Nautilus AG, Genf 1915 HBDK 4349 2726 6690 30.09.1963 8 30.12.1941 / ab Jan. 1947 Eiger / Cristallina KTA Bem; Schweiz. Reederei AG, Basel 1929 HBDL 4386 2639 8137 07.01.1949 9 26.02.1942 Albula Schweizerische Reederei AG, Basel 1910 HBDM 1220 705 2030 18.12.1945 10 29.04.1942 Lugano Nautilus AG, Glarus 1898 HBDN 6941 4360 9200 13.04.1948 11 05.05.1942 Caritas I Stiftung f r die Durchf hrung von Transporten im Interesse des Roten Kreuzes Basel 1903 HBDJ 2750 1762 3950 08.08.1945 12 30.03.1943 Z rich Maritime Suisse AG, Basel 1893 HBDZ 1928 1097 2800 16.12.1946 13 17.03.1944 Caritas II wie Caritas I 1929 HBDP 2832 1699 3950 02.06.1945 14 28.09.1944 Henry Dunant wie Caritas I und II 1910 HBDR 6008 3747 8500 24.10.1945 15 10.06.1947 Certenago Nautilus AG, Glarus 1920 HBDI 6128 3657 10100 12.01.1951 16 03.09.1947 San Moritz Galea SA., Chur 1920 HBDU 5168 3179 9000 26.02.1955 17 20.10.1947 L man Marivins S.A. Genf, Fertmar S.A., Chur 1947 HBDA 320 214 440 10.04.1973 18 02.02.1948 General Guisan Helica S.A., Genf 1948 HBDG 5142 3039 9100 09.04.1957 19 22.07.1948 Laupen Keller Line AG, Basel 1948 HBDP 469 243 800 14.04.1960 20 07.12.1950 Murten Keller Line AG, Basel 1942 HBDQ 511 179 740 25.06.1956 21 20.10.1948 Ville de Gen ve Soc. Auxiliaire de Transport S.A., Genf 1915 HBDB 1255 704 1700 16.03.1955 22 23.11.1948 Simplon Lloyd Seeschiffahrt AG, Basel 1944 HBDE 600 292 800 19.11.1952 23 13.04.1949 Anunciada Transp. Marit. Suisse-Outremer S.A., Genf 1948 HBDH 5370 3086 9320 09.07.1963 24 12.04.1949 Carona Schweizerische Reederei AG, Basel 1948 HBDC 2351 1204 3000 23.03.1964 25 20.05.1949 Generoso San Giorgio S.A. di Navigazione, Chur 1913 HBDR 1552 873 2755 12.12.1952 26 01.07.1949 Cristallina Schweizerische Reederei AG, Basel 1949 HBDL 2351 1204 3000 15.06.1968 27 20.09.1949 / ab Aug. 1952 Misox / Grandson BRAG Maritime AG, Basel / Keller Line AG, Basel 1949 HBDT 616 428 850 08.01.1963 28 09.02.1950 Neuch tel Roger de Perrot, Neuenburg 1930 HBDD 9555 5514 14500 01.10.1954 29 03.06.1950 Ticino Nautilus AG, Glarus 1920 HBDX 6528 4088 9841 11.12.1954 30 30.10.1950 San Salvatore San Giorgio S.A. di Navigazione, Chur 1919 HBDJ 5591 3985 8541 27.01.1953 31 31.01.1951 / ab 24.01.1955 Lausanne / Lucendro Suisse-Atlantique S.A., Lausanne/ Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1948 HBDV 4924 2885 8920 07.01.1956 32 09.03.1951 Rhone Cargos Maritimes S.A., Genf 1919 HBDW 336 172 440 07.11.1955 33 19.10.1951 Lugano Trafina AG, Lugano 1946 HBDS 485 265 700 01.09.1955 34 01.06.1951 General Dufour Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1949 HBDY 4779 2585 7710 09.09.1970 35 01.06.1951 Baden Nautilus AG, Genf 1950 HBDI 5752 3368 19950 23.09.1973 36 03.11.1951 Calanda Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1948 HBDN 4783 2677 7850 22.12.1955 37 15.06.1951 Lucerne Trafina AG, Basel 1946 HBFA 533 330 730 20.09.1956 38 27.10.1951 Lepontia I Lepontia Societ di Navigazione, Chur 1920 HBDZ 4992 3034 7880 05.02.1955 39 29.12.1951 Gallus K stenschiffahrt AG, Goldach 1910 HBDF 1110 564 1350 17.09.1953 40 23.01.1952 Sempach Keller Line AG, Basel 1941 HBFE 597 245 815 01.07.1953 41 12.02.1952 Rhin Cargos Maritimes, Genf 1917 HBFF 331 170 430 06.04.1956 42 07.03.1952 St-Cergue Helica S.A., Lausanne 1952 HBFD 4941 2816 8890 12.09.1960 43 30.06.1952 Allobrogia Helica S.A., Lausanne 1952 HBFH 6205 3299 9570 24.12.1964 44 08.07.1952 Helvetia Nautilus AG, Genf 1952 HBDH 5762 3355 7620 18.08.1978 45 14.07.1952 Maloja Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1952 HBFI 2922 1468 4700 10.10.1973 46 03.09.1952 / ab 4.9.56 Romandie / Sils Suisse-Atlantique S.A., Lausanne/ Oceana-Shipping AG, Chur 1952 HBFB 5807 3290 10825 06.10.1965 47 11.09.1952 / ab 4.2.66 Sunadele / Adele Reederei Z rich AG, Z rich 1952 HBFL 4995 2651 6290 26.11.1966 48 13.09.1952 Basilea Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1952 HBFK 6211 3301 9570 02.06.1978 49 18.09.1952 Jura Cargos Maritimes S.A., Genf 1917 HBFJ 886 500 1350 20.02.1957 50 17.10.1952 Nyon Helica S.A., Genf 1952 HBFC 5342 3065 10003 08.08.1962 51 10.11.1952 / ab 31.12.68 Sunamelia / Amelia Reederei Z rich AG, Z rich 1952 HBFM 4989 2666 6290 27.02.1970 52 02.01.1953 Furka Lloyd Seeschiff hrt AG, Basel 1944 HBFN 667 377 940 15.10.1954 53 30.12.1954 Arbedo Mittelmeer Reederei AG, Basel 1951 HBDE 997 614 1214 09.08.1972 54 12.01.1956 Silvretta Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1956 HBDJ 7008 3852 10800 17.02.1958 55 24.04.1956 Silvaplana Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1956 HBDX 6316 3436 10800 19.06.1969 56 27.07.1957 / ab 19.10.70 General Guisan / Mol son Helica S.A., Genf / Sodemar S.A., Fribourg 1957 HBFO 9233 5182 12880 10.06.1974 57 24.05.1958 Regina Regina Schiffahrt AG, Basel 1958 HBDR 10352 5258 14468 09.03.1971 58 03.09.1968 Corviglia Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1958 HBDF 8871 5037 13407 29.03.1973 59 16.05.1959 Lavaux Sodemar S.A., Fribourg 1959 HBDD 9018 5216 13400 06.08.1974 60 20.05.1959 Celerina Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1959 HBDB 8840 5129 13391 06.09.1976 61 01.09.1959 Rigi Aquila Reederei AG, Basel 1953 HBDJ 6160 3305 9900 11.09.1968 62 10.11.1959 Ariana Helica S.A., Genf 1959 HBDG 7320 3984 10435 16.11.1966 63 24.041960 Gen ve Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1960 HBDN 9338 5445 12800 08.02.1985 64 16.05.1961 Castagnola St. Gotthard Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1961 HBDZ 8674 5300 11860 14.11.1975 65 01.09.1961 Rhone Bemina Hochsee-Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1961 HBDO 7669 4420 10157 11.01.1967 66 02.11.1961 Rhin Bemina Hochsee-Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1961 HBDS 7969 4419 10157 25.10.1966 67 15.01.1962 Bregaglia Suisse-Atlantique S.A., Lausanne 1962 HBDV 14112 9367 19620 06.12.1972 68 30.03.1962 Calanca St. Gotthard Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1962 HBFJ 1426 637 1690 28.02.1977 69 19.05.1962 Castaneda St. Gotthard Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1962 HBFE 1426 637 1690 09.03.1977 70 06.06.1962 Belotti Fertmar S.A., Genf 1947 HBDQ 466 208 600 27.01.1972 71 20.09.1962 Laupen Keller Shipping AG, Basel 1956 HBDW 1007 637 1638 23.07.1980 72 25.04.1963 Grandson Keller Shipping AG, Basel 1952 HBDT 1140 632 1625 06.08.1975 73 04.06.1963 / ab 06.2.1978 Calanda / Carola Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1963 HBFD 5296 2801 9650 12.01.1979 74 20.01.1965 Romandie Helica S.A., Genf 1965 HBDU 21272 15526 34113 18.07.1974 75 09.10.1965 Castasegna Occana Shipping AG, Chur 1958 HBDP 8871 5037 10975 12.03.1973 76 14.06.1966 Arolla Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1954 HBFC 6704 3878 8991 28.03.1978 77 22.06.1966 Murten Keller Shipping AG, Basel 1966 HBDM 1261 813 1728 28.07.1979 78 28.10.1966 St.Cergue Helica S.A., Genf 1962 HBFF 14112 9367 19660 25.01.1978 79 12.12.1966 Cassarate St. Gotthard Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1966 HBDT 9640 5431 12165 29.09.1980 80 11.02.1967 Randa Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1956 HBDC 8652 4737 12630 14.08.1979 81 13.03.1967 Caribia Bemina Hochsee-Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1967 HBLA 9642 5446 12120 28.02.1980 82 23.01.1969 Dornach Keller Shipping AG, Basel 1961 HBFG 1174 732 1518 02.09.1983 83 31.07.1970 Zinal Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1959 HBLD 7114 3945 10649 03.11.1980 84 20.10.1970 Alpina Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1970 HBLB 9600 6127 14744 13.11.1985 85 22.04.1971 Ascona Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1971 HBLC 9600 6133 14720 13.04.1985 86 09.11.1971 Champex Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1960 HBFQ 9453 5651 13335 09.08.1983 87 02.11.1972 Davos Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1961 HBFR 9101 5415 13020 09.01.1985 88 08.03.1973 General Guisan Helica S.A., Genf 1973 HBFS 33991 21248 54202 09.09.1987 89 08.05.1973 Silvretta Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1972 HBFT 18503 11349 30235 07.01.1986 90 22.01.1974 Corviglia Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1969 HBDE 10738 6553 15850 23.04.1985 91 25.11.1974 Rh ne Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1974 HBDO 1599 1137 3641 12.09.1998 92 22.02.1975 Rhin Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1975 HBDS 1599 1083 3130 11.01.1989 93 30.06.1975 / ab 05.03.82 ./ ab 10.12.85 Diavolezza / Nordland / Diavolezza Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1975 HBFA 20738 13889 33630 15.04.1988 94 14.10.1975 Romandie Helica S.A., Genf 1975 HBDU 20797 13899 34168 21.05.1993 95 22.03.1976 Stockhorn Contal Shipping Ltd. Chur, Chur 1966 HBFU 998 644 2384 26.03.1981 96 18.01.1977 Lavaux Helica S.A., Genf 1977 HBDD 17874 10746 28310 19.04.1999 97 17.03.1978 Valais Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1971 HBFV 1467 731 2045 15.01.1990 98 08.05.1978 Anz re Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1978 HBDA 3894 1853 5482 10.10.1991 99 11.07.1978 Regina Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1978 HBDR 8561 5250 11075 02.09.1986 100 06.07.1978 Turicia Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1978 HBFX 1595 917 2183 03.02.1987 101 04.08.1978 Vanil Sarimar S.A., Fribourg 1978 HBFW 10909 6500 15600 05.02.1991 102 15.09.1978 Waldhorn Contal Shipping Ltd Chur, Chur 1969 HBFY 3123 1878 4420 19.03.1993 103 27.10.1978 Basilea Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1978 HBFK 1597 910 2183 02.02.1987 104 17.01.1979 Engiadina Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1975 HBFZ 34298 21042 54163 12.04.1979 105 12.03.1979 Sils Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1976 HBDF 17874 10746 28306 14.04.1999 106 30.05.1979 Leman Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1966 HBFO 1582 1148 2990 08.04.1993 107 08.06.1979 Tessin Yru S.A., Genf 1962 HBDP 2291 930 3103 16.06.1981 108 26.09.1979 Favorita St. Gotthard Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1969 HBFL 8426 4193 6625 13.07.1983 109 04.12.1979 Calanda Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1975 HBFD 7679 4977 10089 24.06.1986 110 05.12.1979 / ab M rz 80 ab 11.7.83 Maloja / Petra Crown / Maloja Alpina Reederei AG, Basel 1974 HBFI 7680 4982 10059 11.07.1986 111 11.01.1980 Nyon Helica S.A., Genf 1978 HBFC 36207 24444 60797 09.01.1996 112 10.04.1980 Schloss Tarasp Balaena AG, Cham 1961 HBFM 6316 3433 8611 06.12.1983 113 16.01.1981 Albula St. Gotthard Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1981 HBDP 10524 5614 11000 24.06.1988 114 11.06.1981 Bernina St. Gotthard Schiffahrts AG, Chur 1981 HBDQ 10524 5614 11000 08.04.1988 115 22.10.1981 Laupen Keller Shipping AG, Basel 1972 HBDW 1599 1097 2704 11.02.1986 116 12.08.1982 Sarine Massoel S.A., Fribourg 1977 HBDB 2351 1414 3564 03.05.1990 117 07.09.1982 Cervin Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1982 HBFJ 3818 2539 6930 07.08.2001 118 10.08.1983 Celerina Oceana Shippping AG, Chur 1975 HBFZ 20878 13629 34617 30.03.1988 119 14.10.1983 Mol son Navemar S.A., Fribourg 1978 HBLE 36064 24945 64481 16.03.1984 120 05.10.1983 Murten Keller Shipping AG, Basel 1971 HBDH 1599 1097 2704 28.04.1994 121 20.12.1983, Fribourg Massoel S.A., Fribourg 1978 HBFF 2351 1414 3564 09.11.1993 122 30.11.1984 Mol son Navernar S.A., Fribourg 1984 HBLE 22342 12783 37489 19.08.1992 123 04.12.1984 Lugano Masstransport MT S.A., Fribourg 1976 HBFE 3843 2416 6258 26.10.1989 124 01.02.1985 / ab 10.12.85 Bregaglia / Lausanne Oceana Shipping AG, Chur/ Helica S.A., Genf 1985 HBFZ 22342 12775 37268 24.11.1998 125 14.10.1985 Villars Transoc anique Suisse S.A., Genf 1978 HBDH 3773 1691 6100 14.05.1998 126 19.06.1985 Chemist Lutetia Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1974 HBDG 3912 2691 6478 21.12.1993 127 14.10.1985 Vinlandia Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1966 HBDI 1422 774 2030 24.07.1997 128 20.12.1985 St-Cergue Helica S.A., Genf 1983 HBDJ 35749 22209 64310 21.07.1989 129 22.04.1987 Paray Marina S.A., Fribourg 1980 HBDK 35530 21032 64443 13.05.1988 130 29.10.1987 Grischuna Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1987 HBDL 37031 24287 64442 06.05.1999 131 20.04.1990 Silvaplana Occana Shipping AG, Chur 1990 HBFS 37519 22604 68789 07.12.1993 132 29.03.1990 General Guisan Helica S.A., Genf 1990 HBFB 37519 22604 68789 28.06.1995 133 24.08.1990 Martin P. Nanice Schiffahrts AG, Herisau 1985 HBFH 4294 2847 6328 13.06.2000 134 09.10.1990 Lugano 2 Masstransport MT S.A., Fribourg 1986 HBFE 4781 2871 7310 20.12.1994 135 02.07.1991 Diavolezza Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1983 HBFA 41010 24640 75485 15.10.1998 136 23.07.1991 St-Cergue Helica S.A., Genf 1983 HBDJ 41010 24640 75485 21.09.1998 137 03.08.1992 Gen ve Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1992 HBDN 4433 1872 6782 17.12.2002 138 14.01.1993 Sarine 2 Massoel S.A., Fribourg 1982 HBDB 8351 4305 12296 21.01.1997 139 22.03.1993 Uri Massoel S.A., Fribourg 1983 HBLF 8353 4305 12296 02.05.1997 140 04.01.1994 L man IV Vinalmar S.A., Genf 1993 HBFO 5401 2456 9108 17.12.2002 141 18.10.1994 Romandie Suisse-Atlantique S.A., Lausanne 1994 HBDU 39422 24360 75460 30.07.2001 142 10.01.1995 Silvretta Suisse-Atlantique S.A., Lausanne 1995 HBFT 38422 24360 75460 09.02.2004 143 14.02.1995 Schwyz Masscapital S.A., Gen ve 1989 HBLG 25891 13673 43665 17.10.2003 144 05.05.1995 Aventicum Edna Shipping AG, Zug 1989 HBLI 25891 13673 43665 14.04.2005 145 22.08.1995 Turicum Bulk Shipping (Switzerland)AG, Zug 1995 HBLK 26449 16181 47640 146 03.06.1996 Unterwalden Massocean S.A., Fribourg 1996 HBLH 27552 15215 45300 23.12.2004 147 11.04.1997 Luzern Masshipco S.A., Fribourg 1997 HBLU 27552 15215 45300 29.03.2005 148 30.01.1998 Vindonissa Sextant Maritime AG, Zug 1998 HBLL 26028 14924 45572 149 09.06.1998 Mol son Navernar S.A., Fribourg 1998 HBLE 38289 24125 73018 150 14.01.1999 Bariloche Helica S.A., Gen ve 1999 HBLO 38289 24125 73018 31.03.2004 151 13.04.1999 Corviglia Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1999 HBDE 39161 24557 73035 152 05.05.1999 Marie-Jeanne MV Marie-Jeanne AG, Bern 1999 HBED 2999 1714 5050 153 15.09.1999 General Guisan Suisse-Atlantique S.A., Lausanne 1999 HBFS 39161 24557 73035 154 10.09.1999 Claudia MV Claudia AG, Bern 1999 HBEC 2999 1568 5050 155 27.08.1999 Kathrin MV Kathrin AG, Bern 1999 HBEE 2999 1568 5050 156 27.08.1999 Alessia MV Alessia AG, Bern 1999 HBEA 2999 1568 5050 157 07.06.2000 Sabina MV Sabina AG, Bern 2000 HBEB 5968 3422 9231 158 16.01.2001 Curia Loxodrome Shipping AG, Zug 2001 HBLM 28691 17592 50968 159 03.02.2001 Celine MV Celine AG, Bern 2001 HBEF 6382 3418 9000 160 01.06.2001 Uri Masstrader S.A., Gen ve 2001 HBLF 27011 16011 46509 18.04.2005 161 14.06.2001 Glarus Massmariner S.A., Gen ve 2001 HBLP 27011 16011 46513 162 14.06.2001 Appenzell Masscape S.A., Gen ve 2001 HBLN 27011 16011 46492 163 08.10.2001 San Benedetto Benedetto Schifffahrt AG, Amriswil 1997 HBLS 4386 1316 4780 164 19.07.2002 Engiadina / Norasia Engiadina / Engiadina Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 2002 HBLT 27’779 14’769 39’429 165 30.05.2002 Celerina Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 1997 HBLQ 39161 24557 73035 166 08.01.2003 Lausanne Helica SA, Gen ve 2003 HBLR 27’779 14’769 39’429 167 01.07.2003 Sils / Norasia Sils Oceana Shipping AG, Chur 2003 HBDF 27’779 14’769 39’429 168 19.05.2004 Calanda Massatlantic S.A., Fribourg 2000 HBFD 16'418 9'409 27'321 29.11.2004 169 18.06.2004 Alpina Massatlantic S.A., Fribourg 2003 HBLB 16'418 9'565 27'112 29.11.2004 170 28.02.2005 SCL Bern / SITC Bern SLC Bern AG, Bern 2005 HBEG 9'990 4'590 12'680 171 12.05.2005 SCL Thun SLC Thun AG, Bern 2005 HB?? 172 Im Bau SCL Basilea SLC Basilea AG, Bern 2005 HB?? 173 Im Bau SCL Leman SLC Leman AG, Bern 2005 HB?? 174 05.01.2005 San Bernardino San Bernardino Schifffahrt AG, Amriswil 2002 HBLV 3'799 1'193 4'250 175 03.03.2005 San Benjamino San Benjamino Schifffahrt AG, Amriswil 2003 HBLW 4'064 1'219 4'500 176 Reederei-Adressen Reederei - Adressen ABC Maritime AG rue Perdtemps 1 1260 Nyon Tel: +41 (0)22 365 71 00 Fax: +41 (0)22 365 71 11 Atlanship SA affaires maritimes rte de Chailly 1 1814 La Tour-de-Peilz VD Tel: +41 (0)21 944 91 91 Fax: +41 (0)21 944 91 80 Enzian Shipping AG Sennweg 11 3000 Bern 9 Tel: +41 (0)31 305 16 60 Tel: +41 (0)31 305 19 60 Homepage: http://www.enzian-shipping.com Note: All correspondence with Enzian Shipping to be addressed to the Schlieren office only. Enzian Shipping AG Filiale Schlieren Z rcherstrasse 137 CH 8952 Schlieren/ZH Tel: +41 (0)43 433 61 90 Fax: +41 (0)43 433 85 24 Email: email@example.com Massoel Gestion Maritime S.A. Rue du Clos 21-23 C.P. 6165, 1211 Gen ve 6 1207 Gen ve Tel: +41 (0)22 737 03 00 Montana Shipping Ltd. Z rcherstrasse 137 CH 8952 Schlieren/ZH Tel: +41 (0)43 433 61 99 Fax: +41 (0)43 433 85 24 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company SA av. Eug ne-Pittard 40 1206 Gen ve GE Tel: +41 (0)22 703 88 88 Fax: +41 (0)22 703 87 87 Reederei Z rich AG Bergstrasse 109 8030 Z rich Tel: +41 (0)1 / 257 10 40 Homepage: http://www.reedereizurich.com SCL-Reederei Z rcherstrasse 137 CH 8952 Schlieren/ZH Tel: +41 (0)43 433 61 99 Fax: +41 (0)43 433 85 24 Email: Suisse-Atlantique Soci t de Navigation Maritime SA Avenue des Baumettes 7 Case Postale 48 1020 Renens 1 Tel: +41 (0)21 637 22 01 Reeder-Frame Diese Seite verwendet Frames. Frames werden von Ihrem Browser aber nicht unterst tzt. 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Hecht ( NEU ) Bahnhofstrasse 28 8600 D bendorf Tel. 01 820 00 55 Restaurant- Oeffnungszeiten Redaktion Flaschenpost firstname.lastname@example.org Club-Kalender 2005 CLUB - KALENDER 2005 Regelm ssigeVeranstaltungen (Hock, etc.) sind bei den jeweiligen Sektionen aufgef hrt Aenderungen sind jederzeit m glich(Flaschenpost konsultieren) Datum Sektion Veranstaltung 15.05.2005 SG Pfingstwanderung 20.05.2005 ZH Minigolf Dolder 28.05.2005 SH Familienwanderung in Villnachern 28.05.2005 BE Peilen mit Max Suremann 11.06.2005 LU Fischen Rugisbalm NW 11.06.2005 BE Aarefest Freiheit Bern Wabern 11.06.2005 ZH Zeppelinmuseum Friedrichshafen und Hock Bei Adi Romanshorn 11.06.2005 SG Bei Adi Romanshorn 18.06.2005 SH Grillparty Leo & Margrit 18.06.2005 AG Grillplausch Heinz 18.06.2005 BS Grand Dixence VS Frame-Kopf Inmarsat Name E-mail Telex Telephone Fax System Type Flag Inmarsat Hauptframe ABC-Maritime AFRICAN STAR 2 437600385 Inmarsat-C TDG VCT AFRICAN STAR 2 437601563 Inmarsat-C TDG VCT KAMA RIVER 424841510 Inmarsat-C TDG MLT KAMA RIVER 762028065 762028066 Inmarsat-mM Inmarsat-mM TDG MLT AQUITAINE EXPLORER 422700211 Inmarsat-C OTH FRA AQUITAINE EXPLORER 322700210 322700220 322700230 Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-B OTH FRA AQUITAINE EXPLORER 422700210 Inmarsat-C OTH FRA IBENGA 437601336 Inmarsat-C TDG VCT KAZYM RIVER 762950813 762950814 Inmarsat-mM Inmarsat-mM TDG MLT KAZYM RIVER 421505811 Inmarsat-C TDG MLT KAZYM RIVER 421505810 Inmarsat-C TDG MLT NGOL BENGO 424824610 Inmarsat-C TDG MLT NGOL BENGO 424824611 Inmarsat-C TDG MLT NGOL CHILOANGO 321512812 321512810 321512811 Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-B TDG MLT NGOL CHILOANGO 421512810 Inmarsat-C TDG MLT NGOL CUBANGO NGOL CUNENE 431290410 Inmarsat-C TDG BLZ NGOL DANDE 1 1271227 1271227 1271231 Inmarsat-A TDG MLT NGOL DANDE 1 424811810 Inmarsat-A TDG MLT NGOL KWANZA 424837810 Inmarsat-C TDG MLT N'GOUNIE 437601337 Inmarsat-C TDG VCT NIARI 437600061 Inmarsat-C OFS VCT NIARI 437601365 Inmarsat-C OFS VCT NYANGA 437607510 Inmarsat-C OFS VCT OCEAN DIVER IV 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761846491 Inmarsat-mM Inmarsat-mM TDG SUI CLAUDIA 426904610 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI CLAUDIA 426904620 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI CLAUDIA 761844085 761844086 Inmarsat-mM Inmarsat-mM TDG SUI KATHRIN 426904810 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI KATHRIN 426904820 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI ALESSIA 426904720 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI ALESSIA 426904710 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI SABINA 426905220 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI SABINA 426905210 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI CELINE 426905720 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI CELINE 426905710 Inmarsat-C TDG SUI Inmarsat-A Atlantischer Ozean (Ost) 00 – 871 (Raisting) Atlantischer Ozean (West) 00 – 874 Indischer Ozean 00 – 873 (Raisting) Pazifischer Ozean 00 – 872 Inmarsat-B, -M, -Phone, -ISDN Alle 4 Ozenbereiche 00 – 870 (Raisting) HISTORY OF THE SWISS FLAG AT SEA A SHORT HISTORY OF THE SWISS FLAG AT SEA Introduction During the dark days of the second World War Switzerland was practically forced to create a seagoing merchant fleet flying the Swiss flag under the most adverse conditions imaginable. This story is practically unknown to most people. Introduction of a maritime law into Swiss legislation was also undertaken with greatest urgency as a necessary preamble for the forming of a small merchant fleet. Among the events of the war this was just an insignificant small side-show mostly unnoticed even by the population of the landlocked country itself. It was the struggle of a small nation to keep afloat in the turbulent and stormy waters of an upheaval the likes of which the world had never seen before. By necessity this report is far from complete or perfectly accurate. It highlights only some isolated aspects of a complex story. Early attempts During the 19th century the Swiss government received countless proposals and requests concerning the official introduction of the Swiss flag at sea. These demands came mainly from Swiss traders or trading companies which had opened subsidiaries or owned trading companies in European and Overseas port cities. Some of them acquired their own ships and operated under the flag of their port of residence. There were also manufacturing and trading companies located in Switzerland which operated their own ocean going ships registered in some foreign port. Another group proposed to carry the increasing number of Swiss emigrants to North America on ships under Swiss flag to spare them the abominable conditions on the typical emigrant vessels. There were also a considerable number of Swiss nationals among the crews of merchant ships of many nations despite - or may be because of - the landlocked location of Switzerland. Some of them even managed to attain officer or captain status. All these groups argued that better control of the ships and their fate would be possible if they would be able to sail under the Swiss flag. To some extend this might have been true. However, it would have required an internationally accepted maritime law to assure a minimum of stability and security for ships belonging to a nation with no direct access to the sea. Nothing like that was in sight at that time. Every seafaring nation created its own laws and interpreted them to its advantage. This must have been one of the many reasons why the Swiss government was not very much interested in this question. However, it asked several of its embassies and consulates in seafaring nations to submit a report about the feasibility of operating ocean going ships under the Swiss flag. A similar request was sent out to the foreign offices of 17 seafaring nations. The reports from the embassies and consulates were mainly sceptical. The Swiss Consul at Le Havre considered the idea ridiculous and expressed his view in no uncertain terms. The foreign offices of most countries kept back, waiting for the reaction of France which they probably intended to emulate. Finally the Swiss government decided to drop the matter. The First World War During the First World War Switzerland was surrounded by belligerent nations and completely isolated in every respect. The country had no natural resources to speak of and was therefore completely dependent on imports. Deliveries from Eastern Europe were reduced to near zero by the Allied blockade and the war in the Balkans. Attention focused more and more on overseas markets. However, mainly because of the U-boat war, shipping tonnage became very rare. Consequently freight rates increased dramatically followed by an increase in market prices. The Swiss government and some private entrepreneurs tried to negotiate several charter agreements or outright ownership of ships under neutral flags. A great part of the world’s merchant fleet was under control of the "Interallied Chartering Executive" in London. After long and difficult negotiations Switzerland was offered a contract for the use of may be a dozen ships of 5000 gross register tons (grt) each. Right from the beginning this was rather theoretical. In the autumn of 1917 only a total of about 30’000 grt was officially reserved for the Swiss. Even then ships became unavailable on short notice because they were urgently needed for some war transport. In march 1917 the Swiss Federal Council established a central authority to handle all import and export problems, called FERO. The main task of this office was to organise the transportation and import of food and all other vital goods needed for survival. FERO managed to close a contract with the US War Transport Office ensuring the delivery of grain to Switzerland via European neutral ports. The cargo was carried on US flag vessels, including even some sailing ships. The ships were required to carry a stretched out Swiss flag on the foremast. Also the word "SCHWEIZ" (German for Switzerland) in huge white letters was painted on both sides of the hull. The rather na ve idea was that these measures would help to prevent U-boat attacks. When the USA entered the war against the Central Powers these ships were of course no more available. The situation became critical and numerous Swiss delegations in London and Paris tried desperately to obtain ships under all circumstances. However, the Swiss were told that they had to help themselves somehow. There were several other schemes, for instance the forming of a Dutch/Swiss shipping company using Dutch vessels marooned in US ports. This plan failed mainly because the USA, after their entry into the war, confiscated the ships for their own use under the so called Angary rule. The increasing shortages in Switzerland and the failures to secure shipping space caused alarm and a feeling of vulnerability bordering on panic. Any endeavour, never mind how risky, seemed to be justified to improve the situation. This certainly explains, at least partly, another project christened the "Swiss Sea Transport Union". A total of 28 ships (some of them not even built yet) were to be chartered from a Belgian Shipping Company. The costs were to be distributed equally between the Swiss Government and several private enterprises. After long delays a third of the fleet was finally put into service in spring 1919 (!) and the rest in the autumn of that year. However, after the cease-fire in November 1918 a great number of ships became available and the blown up freight rates plummeted to a rather low level. The whole enterprise collapsed in 1921. Between the Wars The experience of the First World War had demonstrated with utmost clarity that there was indeed a need for a small Swiss merchant fleet under their own flag. However, Switzerland followed the example of the Western Democracies. Everybody seemed to believe that the age of eternal peace had finally dawned. Switzerland reduced its militia army to an absolute and ridiculous minimum. The idea of an ocean-going merchant fleet under Swiss flag was buried forever, or so it seemed. It was all understandable somehow, but nevertheless short-sighted and na ve. In March 1933 the NSDAP ("National Socialist German Workers Party", a.k.a. as Nazi Party) came to power in Germany. The massive re-armament in Germany and the aggressive stance of its dictator caused grave concern. It was clear to discerning people all over Europe that another war was likely in the not to distant future. The Swiss government was determined not to repeat the mistakes made during WW1. Quietly plans were discussed to find ways and means to survive another war. Talks were held with a few neighbouring governments to allow ships carrying cargo for Switzerland to use their ports. After long and laborious negotiations an agreement was finally reached. Other difficult talks revolved around the problem of the necessary overland transports from the coastal ports to Switzerland. In normal times a majority of imports, especially bulk freight, were carried on Rhine river cargo ships from the ports of Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Antwerp to Basel. Germany was another important source for many raw materials, fertiliser, liquid fuel, coal, etc. most of which were also carried on the river. It was very unlikely that this would still be possible in case of war. In fact, the Germans closed the Rhine river for all traffic right at the start of the hostilities. The Second World War On 1 April 1939 the Swiss government ordered the stockpiling of grain. When Germany attacked and occupied Poland in agreement with the Soviet Union on the 1 September 1939, some carefully prepared measures were put into effect. Apart from the immediate and total mobilisation of the army, a special Office for War Economy started working on 4 September 1939. One of its departments was the "Kriegs Transport Amt" (KTA) or "War Transport Office". As mentioned before, Switzerland has no natural resources at all, except hydro-electric power. Literally everything else has to be imported to keep the industry and economy going. The country with almost four million inhabitants was even then overpopulated and not self sufficient in food production either. Professor of Agriculture F.T. Wahlen at the ETH Zurich (the Swiss Technical University) had made a thorough study of the food problem. He showed that many more people could be sufficiently nourished if they would eat grain products directly, for instance bread. That is, without the detour of feeding the grain first to poultry or cattle. The conclusions were simple and were also put into practice without delay. The number of cattle was drastically reduced. In addition every square centimetre of arable soil was requisitioned to grow wheat, potatoes and vegetables, etc.. At the same time strict rationing was introduced, not only for food but for almost everything; leather, metals, liquid fuel of any kind, coal, textiles, fertilisers and so on. Copper became unavailable. Electrical conductors were made of Aluminium, were brittle, almost impossible to solder and expensive. Private cars became a rare sight. Most of them were requisitioned by the Army which had a tremendous shortage of cars and lorries. There was almost no petrol for private use. Delivery vans, buses, etc. ran with either Carbide or Wood Gas Converters. Food rationing included eggs and the ration finally dropped to one egg per person per month. Bread contained around 50% potatoes. Also the sale of bread that was less than two days old was forbidden. Nobody complained. The rations sank to an all-time low in 1944. In that year the rations represented less than 2000 calories a day. At the beginning this had been considered the absolute minimum. By necessity rationing was in force until 1 July 1948. But all this turned out to be insufficient. The Swiss government realised the urgent need for a small fleet of merchant ships dedicated to carry food and raw materials exclusively for Switzerland. Only ships under flags of "permanently neutral" nations could be considered . On 15 September 1939 the Swiss government managed to close a time charter contract with the Greek Shipping Company Rethymis and Kulukundis Ltd. in London. It stipulated the leasing of 15 ships under Greek flag for the whole duration of the war starting at the latest in spring 1940. During the period from 1 September 1939 until May 1940, relations between the Third Reich and Switzerland were strangely quite. The lull enabled Switzerland to greatly step up imports and the stockpiling of all kinds of goods. The Swiss armament industry now worked overtime for the Allies. There were no orders from the Third Reich and export through France was still possible. It seems like a paradox today that to fulfil the Allied orders the Swiss processed great quantities of German raw materials, like for instance Steel, Coal and so on. The only other major orders for war material came from the Swiss Army. At that time it was hopelessly outclassed, under equipped and used obsolete weapons and other material that dated from World War 1 or even the last century. After the occupation of Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and the fall of France in May 1940, the Swiss found themselves completely encircled by the Axis forces. Immediately the attitude and tone of the notes from Berlin to Bern became frosty and even nasty. The Swiss trading mission in Berlin was confronted with hard and impossible demands from the Third Reich. Now there was only one main source for vitally needed raw materials, namely Germany. Berlin of course was fully aware of that fact. The Third Reich immediately ordered a complete stop of all coal deliveries to Switzerland as a warning and demanded the hand-over of war material ordered by the Allies. The historian Werner Rings wrote. "The Third Reich was in a position to strangulate Switzerland without firing a shot." The negotiations for the various necessary ship and transit permits, etc. and for vital imports from Germany itself became more difficult from day to day. Concessions had to be made. One of them was the total black-out to make navigation for the Allied Air Forces more difficult. Inevitably the few neutral states in Europe were viewed with distrust and suspicion from both sides during the conflict. Switzerland was continually accused, from the Allies and the Germans, to support the other side. It was a classical case of being "between the devil and the deep blue sea". However, some of the Allied leaders were more understanding. The following is an excerpt from a memorandum the great Winston S. Churchill wrote : Prime Minister to Foreign Secretary 3 December 1944 I put this down for the record. Of all the neutrals Switzerland has the greatest right to distinction. She has been the sole international force linking the hideously sundered nations and ourselves. What does it matter whether she has been able to give us the commercial advantages we desire or has given too many to the Germans, to keep herself alive? She has been a democratic State, standing for freedom in self-defence among her mountains, and in thought, in spite of race, largely on our side. signed: Winston. S. Churchill When Italy declared war on France and England in June 1940 the Mediterranean became inaccessible. Greece demanded the hand-over of their chartered ships from Switzerland. Finally they agreed to release ten of their ships for the time being. England stopped all vessels carrying goods for Switzerland, regardless of their flag, in ports west of Gibraltar. After seven months they were allowed to discharge their cargo at Iberian ports, mainly Lisbon. The financial losses for Switzerland and the respective shipping companies went into the millions. At the beginning the freight was transshipped to Genoa or Marseilles using small coasters under Portuguese flag. Later transport over land was also organised, using hundreds of Swiss and Spanish railroad freight cars or even truck convoys. As the Spanish Railroad gauge was wider than the rail tracks of Central Europe, all goods had be transferred again at the Spanish/ French border. Italy had occupied Albania on 7 April 1939 and attacked Greece on the 28 October 1940. Now the Italian ports were definitely closed for Ships under the Greek flag. It became increasingly difficult to import sufficient food and other vital goods into Switzerland. The intensifying U-boat war in the North Atlantic again caused a tremendous shortage of ship's tonnage. A new flag on the high seas. During the summer of 1940 the Swiss Shipping Company in Basel had already purchased two freighters under Panama Flag, the S S Calanda and SS Maloja . Andr & Co. in Lausanne, an important grain trader (today: Suisse Atlantique SA) also bought a ship under Panama flag and called it SS St. Cerque . Both companies asked the Swiss Government to have the vessels registered under the Swiss Flag. The Government declined, arguing that there was no urgent need for doing so and that the administrative efforts and the costs would be prohibitive for such a small fleet. Also there was of course still no Swiss maritime law., The threatening military and political developments in Europe however, made the government to finally change its mind. In January 1941 the Swiss federal council asked Prof. Dr. Robert Haas of Basel to prepare a draft for a maritime law. Mr. Haab had been studying the maritime legislation of major shipping nations since 1922 and was recognised as an expert in this field. Drawing on his knowledge and experience he was able to finish the document within 30 days. The provisional Federal Maritime Law was put into force on 9 April 1941. There remained only one problem: there were few ships for sale. They were mostly old and some of them could only be described as swimming wracks. Also they were terribly expensive. Prices were ten or twenty times as much as compared with those before the war. However, the Swiss had no choice. The only thing they could do was buying the best vessels they could afford and have them overhauled, refurbished and made seaworthy. The costs for this endeavour were enormous but considered justified by its urgency. At the beginning of 1941 Great Britain confiscated all Greek ships in charter to Switzerland. One of the reasons given was that the Swiss would have the opportunity at a later time to obtain cargo space with regular cargo lines. Also it was suggested, somehow unnecessarily, that Switzerland should reduce its living standard and adapt its economy to war conditions similar to the countries that were actually at war. Finally London consented to release ten of the Greek vessels under the proviso that they were not allowed to pass Gibraltar and enter the Mediterranean. Apparently this rule also applied for all neutral ships under private ownership. Therefore the Swiss Government, respectively its War Transport Office KTA, decided to become a shipowner on its own. It managed to buy four ships with a total tonnage of 27 230 dwt which were operated under the Swiss flag. The ships were also used to carry aid and help parcels from the British and American Red Cross as well as letters and parcels for POW’s. Westbound these were all carried free of charge. Finally the increasing amount of Red Cross cargo left very little space for the real purpose of the ships. Consequently the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Geneva decided to purchase their own ships tonnage as well. Three vessels were obtained through a specially created ICRC foundation at Basel. They were also registered in Switzerland and managed by the Swiss Shipping Company. The complex story of the KTA and ICRC ships cannot be told here for reasons of space. Suffice it to say that KTA sold their vessels to Swiss private companies after the war and the ICRC returned their ships to their former owners. List of the Ships acquired by Switzerland during the war years and operated under the Swiss Flag: Register Number Ships Name / Owners , Operators Year built dwt / Sale or Loss Year of purchase / Year of sale or loss 1 SS CALANDA Swiss Shipping Co., Basel 1913 7400 Sale 24.4.1941 12.11. 1946 2 SS MALOJA Swiss Shipping Co., Basel 1906 2750 Total loss 24.4.1941 19.4.1944 3 SS ST. GOTTHARD KTA, Bern / Nautilus AG, Glarus 1911 8339 Sale 6.5.1941 29.7.1954 4 SS GENEROSO Maritime Suisse SA, Basel 1896 2150 Total loss 29.5.1941 29.3.1946 5 SS ST. CERQUE Suisse Atlantique SA, Lausanne 1937 7600 Sale 10.7.1941 17.3.1952 6 SS CHASSERAL KTA, Bern, Nautilus AG, Glarus 1897 4064 Sale 17.7.1941 8.10.1951 7 MS SAENTIS KTA, Bern, Nautilus AG, Glarus 1915 6690 Sale 12.12.1941 30.9.1963 8 SS EIGER, later CRISTALLINA KTA, Bern, Swiss Shipping Co., Basel 1929 8137 Sale 30.12.1941 7.1.1949 9 SS ALBULA Swiss Shipping Co., Basel 1910 2030 Sale 26.2.1942 18.12.1945 10 SS LUGANO Nautilus AG, Glarus 1898 9200 Sale 29.4.1942 13.4.1948 11 SS CARITAS I ICRC Foundation, Basel* 1903 3950 Return** 5.5.1942 2.6.1945 12 SS ZUERICH Maritime Suisse SA, Basel 1893 2800 Total loss 30.3.1943 16.12.1946 13 SS CARITAS II ICRC Foundation, Basel* 1929 3950 Return** 17.3.1944 2.6.1945 14 SS HENRI DUNANT ICRC Foundation, Basel* 1910 8500 Return** 28.9.1944 24.10.1945 * Foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Basel ** Ships were returned to their former owners According to international law the home port of every ship has to be in the country of the flag it flies. Basel was designated as the home port and the Federal Maritime Authority (it calls itself "Swiss Maritime Navigation Office") and the Swiss Maritime Ships Register were established there. The Swiss Maritime law defines the strict conditions for registering a ship in Switzerland. For instance, owners, operators and all management and administrative personnel must be Swiss citizens living in Switzerland. All shareholders must be Swiss nationals and at least three quarters of the shares and the basic capital must be owned by Swiss citizens living in Switzerland. The crew problem Obviously one of the problems during the war was staffing the ships. Only crew members from neutral countries could be considered in theory. There were a large number of Portuguese, also Belgians, Danish, Dutch, Estonians, Greeks, Norwegians, Poles, Spanish, Swedes, Swiss and White Russians. The White Russians were a special problem. They were refugees which before the German occupation had lived in exile in France. They were stateless, most of them had Nansen passes only or no papers at all, and in most countries they were denied shore leave. The Swiss could be found in almost any position on board. Some were Deck- or Engine officers, others were sailors, stewards, cooks or grease monkeys, etc. There was only one Swiss Captain. He was Fritz Gerber who had been born in 1895 and joined a Sailing Ship at Bremen when he was 18. He then sailed for ten years on windjammers on the traditional routes between Europe and Australia, via the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn. After ten years at sea he obtained his Masters certificate at Bremen. Then followed 11 years as Captain with the North German Lloyd on routes to the Far East and Siberia. After that he was Captain of a Whaler in the Antarctic for five years. Finally during WW2 he became captain of the SS St. Cerque , then the SS Eiger and in 1952 he took command of the MS General Dufour . Later in the same year he died of a heart attack at Taltal in Chile. Only Radio Officers could be wholly trained in Switzerland. As their position was considered vitally important, every effort was made to provide each Swiss ship with a Swiss Radio Officer. The training was carried out by Radio Suisse SA in Bern, a forerunner of todays Telecom. It was realised that a direct communication link with the nation’s ships was absolutely necessary. Therefore a Swiss "Coastal Radio Station" was established at the military airport of D bendorf near Zurich with the call sign HBZ. In 1949 the station was moved to a location near the new civilian airport at Kloten and used the call sign HEZ. In 1963 the location was changed to Bern and the call sign to HEB . The station is also equipped for long range voice communication on short wave with aircraft (Long Distance Operational Control = LDOC). Operating the ships Not only purchasing, repairing and manning the ships was difficult. Managing the ships under war conditions became a nightmare. Both sides held up sea blockades. Besides the usual ship’s papers, every Swiss vessel had to carry a multitude of permits, documents and certificates ("Ship Warrants", "Navicerts", etc.) issued only for one specific voyage. Also each voyage had to be reported in detail and in advance to Allied and German officials. The ships carried the word SWITZERLAND in huge white letters on both sides of the hull. They were brightly illuminated at night. Also the Swiss flag was reproduced on the superstructure wherever possible. The Allies and the Germans had installed check points where the ships were stopped and searched. There were many restrictive rules and regulations. The crew was not allowed to have notebooks, diaries, sketches, food, cigarettes, cameras, etc. If found during a search, such things were confiscated. Typical is the story of the journey of two Swiss Radio Officers (Mr. Jakob Wismer and Mr. Ernst Wyler) from Basel to Lisbon in January 1944. They had to join a German Army transport train and were the only civilians among hundreds of German soldiers and officers. Until Ir n, at the French/Spanish border, they had to remain in a compartment with boarded up windows. The whole trip took 65 hours. One of the two Swiss carried three, partly hand-written, books with him. They dealt exclusively with operating practices in Maritime Radio. In order to be allowed to take them along at all, he had to obtain a special permit from the German Embassy in Bern. It said: "The contents have been thoroughly checked. Their unoffensiveness and the necessity for taking them personally across the border to Portugal on the 3rd January 1944 is herewith certified. In view of the urgency of the voyage, sending the material through the post is not possible . signed German Embassy Bern on the 31st of December 1943." Losses Inevitably the war at sea also caused losses and damage among the ships sailing for Switzerland. Despite their small number and despite all the precautions and markings the vessels were attacked from the air and the sea. And then of course there were the mines. The Greek SS Mount Lycabettus left Baltimore on 11 March 1942 bound for Leixoes, Portugal. She never arrived there. The ship vanished without a trace and all inquiries and investigations revealed nothing about her fate. One can only assume that she was torpedoed and sunk with the loss of all crew. The SS Hadiotis ran aground near Lisbon on 15 February 1941. The wrack was bought by the KTA, refloated and repaired. She became the Swiss flag SS Eiger in autumn of 1942. The SS Maloja was attacked by non-identified aircraft near Corsica on 7 September 1943 and sank. Three crewmembers lost their lives. SS Chasseral was erroneously attacked by British aircraft also in the Mediterranean. She suffered heavy damage. One crewmember was dead, four were badly wounded. The ship was towed to S te and later repaired. The SS Albula arrived at Marseilles on 21 July 1944. The liberation of the city by Allied forces was imminent. The vessel was scheduled to load valuable goods blocked in the port from further transport to Switzerland and bring them to a safer place like Lisbon. Also planned were extensive repairs. During the night from 20 to 21 August the retreating German forces blew up the wharf using powerful explosives. They had also laid 2500 mines. The crew had been evacuated to a school building about 4 km from the port. The ship was heavily damaged and sank in the harbour. In addition a heavy harbour crane collapsed right on top of the SS Albula causing further damage. In February 1945 the wrack was towed to Lisbon and sold. On the 14 September 1944 American and Free French navy personnel tried to clear all mines in the port of Marseilles. They asked Captain Gouretzky to shift the SS Generoso a few hundred meters to a safer place. However, under way the vessel struck a mine. The explosion ripped the ship apart. The captain and Radio Officer Christian Schaaf, standing on the bridge, were thrown high into the air. The R/O was fortunate to land in the water. Although the water was covered with oil it did not ignite and Mr. Schaaf survived heavily wounded. However, the captain did not survive and the ship was a total loss. On the positive side it might be mentioned, that in many cases Swiss flag ships managed to pick up survivors from torpedoed and sinking ships and bring them to safety. During the war years the SS Saint Cerque , for instance, under the expert leadership of Captain Gerber managed to pick up several hundred survivors of torpedoed ships. A typical incidence took place in June 1942. While on a voyage from New York to Genoa they were able to take on board 214 passengers and crew of the sunk Dutch freighter Jagers Fontain in the western North Atlantic. There were several American Armed Forces officers among the survivors and Captain Gerber was worried about the possibility of their presence being detected by German U-boats. He ordered their telltale steel helmets to be thrown overboard. Also the Americans were to remain below deck at all times. Only one and a half hours later the SS Saint Cergue was stopped by a German U-boat which first circled around the ship and them came alongside. The German Commander asked if everything was OK and why the vessel was not on its prescribed course. Captain Gerber managed to conceal his apprehensions and replied calmly that the ship had encountered unexpected cross currents. The German U-boat captain accepted the explanation and did not insist on a search but let the SS Saint Cergue continue. After the War: The Transition Period Long before the end of the war in Europe, the question if Switzerland should continue to operate sea going merchant ships under its own flag in peace time was hotly discussed by the interested parties. In 1943 the Association of Forwarding and Shipping Agents voiced its fervent opposition. They were afraid to lose a long-time advantage of favourable freight rates. The association of Swiss Ship Owners was just as firmly for a continuation of their activities after the war. The Swiss government supported the latters view as it considered the political and military future in Europe as highly insecure. As was to be expected the cease fire in Europe on 8 May 1945 did not bring an immediate improvement in conditions for the shipping trade. Lisbon and the ports of southern France remained the main places for discharging goods destined for Switzerland. In the autumn of 1945 the ports of Antwerp, Savona and Genoa were considered sufficiently cleared up and opened again. In August 1945 the Allies established a shipping pool called the "United Maritime Authority" (UMA). Its main purpose was the orderly retrieval of military personnel and war material from Europe. It was clear that now the main interest of the Allies, and especially the USA, was concentrated on the Pacific theatre of war and the need to end operations there as quickly as possible. As the UMA ships were usually in ballast on the eastbound voyages, their carrying capacity was offered to European governments at favourable conditions. Switzerland had ten ships allocated for its most urgent needs. These units transported coal, cotton, bauxite, aluminium, sulphur, steel, copper, grain and sugar any many other goods to Genoa, Savona and Antwerp. The UMA vessels eliminated to a great extend the scarcity of cargo tonnage which had been prevalent during the war. Now however, in the chaotic aftermath, the biggest problem was the transport of freight from the seaports to points inland. Not only were most of the harbours still not able to work at anything like full capacity, the railways and roads in a great part of Europe were destroyed or heavily damaged and largely unusable. Also there was a scarcity of rolling stock. Fortunately, in February 1946, shipping on the Rhine river was resumed, which made it possible to bypass the railways and roads. The direct transfer of cargo from seaship to rivership in ports like Antwerp and Rotterdam also eased the load on the seaports' installations. In March 1946 the UMA was dissolved. Slowly conditions in the maritime freight business normalised. Switzerland was also able to abolish the fuel depots that had been established in Lisbon, Las Palmas and Funchal. Between February and April the KTA sold its four ships to new Swiss owners (see table 1). Also the time charter for the Greek ships was successively terminated and the vessels returned to their owners one by one. Developments and Consolidation The Swiss government and the Shipping companies agreed that two tasks were of highest priority. The fleet had to be modernised and the tonnage increased. Practically all ships purchased during the war were old, slow, small and very inefficient and therefore expensive to operate. Their fuel consumption was very high and in no relation to their slow speed. Also they were unreliable and prone to frequent mechanical breakdowns that caused a lot of delays, costs and even dangerous situations. When the war in Korea began in June 1950 bulk freight rates increased by 100% and more. If the war should proliferate, Switzerland would then depend entirely on the ships under Swiss flag to transport provisions for the country. However, the existent fleet of ten old ships with about 70’000 dwt total capacity was too small. The association of Swiss Shipping Companies worked out a plan to increase the tonnage by at least an additional 60’000 dwt. The Swiss government agreed to provide one-time-only subsidies in the form of long term loans with low interest rates. The loans covered up to 75% of the costs of new ships or purchases. However, the conditions were very strict. The ships could not be disposed of during a period of ten years, except with government approval. The type of ships to be built or purchased was clearly defined. The vessels had to be of modern construction and capable of a minimum speed not below 12 kts. During their service under Swiss flag they had to be maintained in top condition. In two steps a total of 12 ships were built or bought for a sum of 78.2 Million Francs. Their total capacity was almost 100’000 dwt. Other ships were bought or ordered using private capital. On the 31 December 1952 there were 36 vessels under Swiss Flag with a total of 207’291 dwt and an average age of 13 years. Naturally the role of a larger and more modern Swiss merchant fleet during peace time had to be redefined. For the Swiss government the cargo ships under Swiss flag were still seen as a kind of insurance in case of another armed conflict. Of course it was impossible to predict if, when, where and what would or could happen. Very few things, if at all, could be planned ahead. One was the availability of a small fleet of ships with a minimum total carrying capacity. The only other scheme, which was effectively carried out, aimed at securing a maximum of Swiss crewmembers aboard the ships in case of war. All Swiss seamen who had accumulated a certain time and experience at sea and were otherwise considered suitable were registered in a list. It was drawn up in agreement with the Military authorities and kept at the Swiss Maritime Office. In the case of a general mobilisation all persons on the list would have been exempted from military service and were scheduled to join the ships as crew members. When conditions normalised and world trade picked up in the late forties the vessels under Swiss flag were no more needed for provisioning the home country. They had now to find work in the free world market. In one case two bulk carriers were engaged for several years in a kind of shuttle service between Australia and Japan. Others were in long-time charters to European and Overseas shipping companies, like for instance Hapag-Lloyd in Germany or Saguenay Terminals (ALCAN) of Canada. One company - Keller Shipping of Basel - introduced regular line services from Europe to West African and Mediterranean ports. This company also represents Lloyds of London in Switzerland. The MV Basilea of the Swiss Shipping Co. was engaged on a regular run from Europe to China under long-time charter to Rickmers Shipping in Bremen, Germany. At that time conditions were favourable and practically all traditional shipping nations continually increased their fleets. The Swiss operators did the same but their main objective was to increase carriage capacity. While the number of ships fluctuated, the total tonnage steadily increased. On 31 December 1974 there were 26 units with a total carrying capacity of 308’425 dwt. In April 1986 there were again 34 ships with a total of 580’965 dwt and an average age of 9.56 years. Today, that is as from 12 February 1998 the official statistics show 20 seagoing vessels under Swiss flag with a total tonnage of 769’745 dwt. Average age is 10 years. The percentage of Swiss crewmembers was at its highest during 1965 when it reached 62%. In 1997, with a total crew complement of 393 on 19 ships, only 11.7% of the crews were Swiss. Six of them were captains. The rest of the crew were nationals of the following countries: Germany (1 captain), Chile, Indonesia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, Croatia, Philippines, Poland, Slowakia, Slovenia, Spain and the Ukraine. With the addition in February 1998 of a new unit, the bulkcarrier MS Vindonissa of 45’527 dwt, the above numbers will have to be corrected slightly. Surprisingly the Lloyds Maritime Directory for 1997 shows 27 shipping companies registered in Switzerland. They own, operate and manage a total of 277 (now 278) ocean going ships. The great majority of them, except for the twenty flying the Swiss flag, are under flags of convenience. Conclusion The slow but continuous deterioration of conditions for international shipping during the last decades also affected the small Swiss fleet. Some companies closed down. Others registered their ships under flags of convenience and officially ceased to exist here. The most prominent victim was the pioneering "Swiss Shipping Company". It still exists but its main area of business is traditional but modernised Rhine river shipping. When No l Mostert published his book "Supership" in 1974 the reader was under the impression that conditions couldn’t possibly get any worse. However, there is little improvement to be seen and in some respects the situation is even worse today than in 1974. There have always been Shipping Companies that endeavoured to maintain high standards of quality and safety. Many of the Swiss companies belonged or still belong to this class. It is hard to say what the future will bring to the merchant ships under the Swiss flag. One can only hope that they will not vanish completely one day. H. Walser This article was first published in SHIPS MONTHLY, April issue 1999 Flaschenpost Startseite Die offizielle Zeitschrift des Seemannsclub's der Schweiz Redaktion: Willy Rechsteiner Zum Hilsenstein 2 4053 Basel e-mail: email@example.com Jahresabonnement Fr. 22.-- Erscheint alle 2 Monate Todesf lle Diese Seite verwendet Frames. Frames werden von Ihrem Browser aber nicht unterst tzt. Schiffsbilder Diese Seite verwendet Frames. Frames werden von Ihrem Browser aber nicht unterst tzt. Untere Navigation Startseite Aktuelle Liste der Schweizer Schiffe Foto anklicken = grosses Format News Links Schweizer Schiffsregister (klein) Reeder Seemannsclub G stebuch Liste aller Schiffe Schiffe im Krieg Virtuelle Werft (Neubau-Begleitung) Schiffe im Krieg Diese Seite verwendet Frames. Frames werden von Ihrem Browser aber nicht unterst tzt. Schiffsbilder Diese Seite verwendet Frames. Frames werden von Ihrem Browser aber nicht unterst tzt. Schiffsbilder Diese Seite verwendet Frames. 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Frames werden von Ihrem Browser aber nicht unterst tzt. Schiffsbilder Diese Seite verwendet Frames. Frames werden von Ihrem Browser aber nicht unterst tzt. B cher Empfehlenswerte B cher - Deutsche Seereederei Rostock - Heimathafen Basel - Sparks what's going on? - Ich sah den Frieden sterben - Schweizer Handelsschiffe Weitere Neuerscheinung zum Thema "Deutsche Seereederei Rostock" Vor allem auf Wunsch des Vereins DSR-Seeleute e.V. im s chsischen Freiberg nahm sich der Verlag Gert Uwe Detlefsen, Bad Segeberg, noch einmal des interessanten Themas ber die einstige DDR-Handelsflotte an. Die Neuerscheinung ber die Schiffe der DSR ist zwar eine stark berarbeite und aktualisierte Fassung des l ngst vergriffenen, bekannten Buches von Eilhart Buttkus aus dem Verlag Gert Uwe Detlefsen, unterscheidet sich in der Struktur jedoch erheblich von den Vorg ngerb nden. Die neue Publikation entstand dieses Mal unter Mitwirkung von DDR-Zeitzeugen. So kompetente Helfer wie Reinhard und Wolfgang Kramer, Dieter Strobel und Claus Rothe ffneten ihre Archive. Dieses Buch erscheint innerhalb der Verlagsreihe DEUTSCHE REEDEREIEN als Sonderband Nr. 23 und wird auf schwerem Kunstdruckpapier gefertigt. Der Umfang betr gt 352 Seiten und ber 700 (!) Fotos. Im Unterschied zu den fr heren Ver ffentlichungen werden nunmehr alle 433 Schiffe einzeln abgebildet. Nicht vergessen wurden die Schlepper und technischen Fahrzeuge unter der DSR-Flagge, ber cksichtigt wurden ebenfalls die vielen Entw rfe, Projekte und Planungen. Au erdem musste die fr here DDR-Handelsflotte auf einige Schiffe zugunsten des Exports gegen Devisen verzichten. Der Lebensweg der Schiffe wurde um interessante Fakten erg nzt und aktualisiert. Zusammen mit der vollkommen neuen Bebilderung machen diese neuen Daten und Fakten den Informationswert dieses Buches aus. Ein St ck Zeitgeschichte der DSR wird pr sentiert. Jedes Buch der auf 1750 Exemplare limi